Doping: different types of prohibited substances
Not all medications improve athletic performance, but only a fraction. The list of prohibited substances serves precisely to distinguish between different drugs, so that any athlete knows which drugs or active substances he can take and which he cannot.
The List of Prohibited Substances in Sport has been compiled and is updated annually by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA).
The list changes over the years depending on new scientific discoveries that determine the appearance of new active ingredients in the list or based on new estimates of the actual effectiveness of the substances in question in relation to athletic performance. An example is the derivatives of caffeine and imidazole, which are currently de-listed but were present as stimulants until a few years ago.
However, the use of any prohibited substance is permitted for medical reasons by virtue of the therapeutic exclusion documented by medical personnel.
The Anti-Doping Code also sets out the sanctions faced by offenders, as well as attempts to publicize the health risks associated with taking medications without a real therapeutic goal.
The guidelines for the annual revision are described in the code itself.
Agreed Survey Process The annual roster includes three meetings of the WADA Panel of Experts with a discussion program, and the published draft is circulated for consultation in June.
At its third meeting in September, the expert group examines the bones. Received responses from the consultation process and drew up a new list. The Executive Committee finalizes the list at its September meeting.
The updated list is published by October 1 and will enter into force on January 1 of the next year.
The Panel of Experts is a group of scientists selected for their international expertise. These scientists are evaluating new scientific discoveries and potential risks of substance abuse and, following their assessments, draw up a new list and submit it to the committee.
The Code is the primary document that provides a framework for harmonizing international anti-doping policies and rules and regulations across sports organizations and between government agencies.
Since its entry into force on January 1, 2004, the Code has proven to be a very powerful and effective tool for harmonizing anti-doping regulation around the world. This has been demonstrated by the widespread support of governments and sports organizations for the adoption of the code itself.
The adoption of the Code has led to several significant advances in the global fight against doping in sport, including formalization. some rules, as well as clarification of the responsibilities of stakeholders. This continued with the reconciliation of a previously fragmented and in some cases non-existent system of rules.
The list consists of two sections:
- Prohibited Substances Always
- Prohibited Substances in Competition Only
Prohibited Substances Always
Substances that determine the improvement in physical ability as they alter the structure of the body, and determine that lasting changes over time are always prohibited.
Part of this class:
- All those compounds that are able to alter the composition of the body by affecting the mechanisms that regulate the growth of muscle tissue or the oxygen transport system, starting with erythropoiesis, i.e. red blood cells that carry oxygen in the blood
- All substances that act on the endocrine system, as hormones are regulators of metabolism and cell development
“Masking agents” or substances that can hide the presence of other prohibited drugs
- All substances that in any way have an anabolic effect, not only anabolic itself, but also any compound capable of stimulating protein synthesis and muscle growth.
- Any compound capable of stimulating oxygen transport and therefore providing better energy production, as well as physical methods that have the same purpose. It is clear that oxygen transport is fundamental to determining energy output, so enhancing this process increases work skills and human resistance.
- genetic doping, therefore any process that alters the way cells use DNA
The action of all the compounds presented in this section determines the long-term changes in physical capabilities, in fact, in this case, we are talking about changes in the structure of the body or, better, of the muscular apparatus and systems of transport of substances. A change in one of these conditions has an effect that continues over time, since the very action of the substances in question occurs to a greater extent over time and, more precisely, over several months, as well as with a return to the initial state. this requires additional time, other months, therefore the intake of these compounds exhibits doping effects for very long periods, and for this reason they are always prohibited by anti-doping laws. In practice, prohibited substances always determine the intensification of their effects, if they are administered repeatedly over time, as well as over weeks and months, they lead to more and more significant results.
Substances Banned in Competition Only
Some substances benefit athletes only if they are taken locally prior to competition. These compounds can improve physical performance as they act directly on physical performance, improving them during the duration of the substance itself. The substances described in this section do not have a positive effect in the long term, since the quick action they take determines the problems or problems with tolerance, that is, determines the decrease in effects with continued doses or the state of physical or nervous fatigue when they act. By activating the body to a greater extent than its capabilities, therefore, determine the rapid fatigability of the body.
For this reason, the use of these substances is beneficial to the athlete only if taken prior to a competitive event. In other cases, they only lead to overwork.